The Factual Backdrop: That a river erodes its one bank and forms island on the other with its deposited silt is a Natural phenomenon. The same order of Nature applies to the river Ganga, one the longest rivers in the world. Ganga is sourced out of Gangatri Glacier in the Central Himalayas; the river travels through five Indian states Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, flows over Bangladesh with two different names: Padma and Jamuna, and, meets the Bay of Bengal. The total length of the river is 2525 Km and its catchments area is 6.8 million sq, Km. of which 204 million sq, Km. line outside India. On such a long river, which carries huge silt load, a multipurpose barrage named Farakka Barrage was constructed at the tail end of Ganga in 1971 in Malda.
The major purpose of barrage was to bring additional water to improve the navigation of Hoogli River, the major tributary of Ganga for reviving the Kolkata port, and, of course, for irrigation purpose. The Ganga near Farakka flows between the Rajmahal hills on the west bank and the soft alluvial soil of silt and clay on the east bank. This was an ideal ground for the river to erode the eastern bank. And the artificial stoppage of normal water flow with huge pillage of silt load deposition due to the barrage was responsible for creation of islands in the middle of the river and disasters like recurrent flood and accentuated erosion on the river bank. Due to this Gangatic erosion, that erodes either of the banks especially it's the eastern banks as results of which the land on the bank collapses in to the river and turns in to the river bed itself, about two hundred thousands people of forty thousands families have been affected, nay devastated in 45 years since the construction of the Farakka Barrage, these families have lost, ranging from two times to sixteen times, there house hold, there cropland, there gardens, commercial centers, hospitals, schools almost everything that can sustain life and living resulting in that through they are physically alive, they are spiritually dead.
The state Government came up in 1971 with the scheme of building spurs of stone boulders of various points along the eastern bank of the river Ganga purportedly to stop erosion. From 1971 to 2003 , the state Government every year continued executing its anti erosion scheme on after another based on this failed spare technology though each year anti erosion constructions all most lost its existence to the vagaries of Ganga and thus making the anti erosion construction almost non-existent by the Ganga became an annual phenomenon . The erosion victims realized that the unscientific plans and flawed policies of the Government accompanied with rampant corruption of the authorities concerned were solely responsible for the lot they were going through, And so they felt they need to unite, struggle and not to yield. This robust attitude and determination of these erosion victims gave birth in 1998 to the foundation and formation of this organization namely G.B.P.A.N.C.